Architecture: what is an engaged column?

Tutoring history, you might mention architectural features. The tutor brings up the engaged column.

An engaged column is a round vertical feature that is not free-standing, but partly built into a wall. Its roundness protrudes from the wall it’s part of, interrupting what would simply be flatness.

The engaged column is not only a design element, but also structural. It increases the surface area of the wall it’s part of, which contributes extra strength. It also adds vertical support to the roof above.


Jack of Oracle Tutoring by Jack and Diane, Campbell River, BC.

Lifestyle, history: how was acetaminophen discovered?

The tutor shares a few facts from his recent research of pain medications.

In 1886, Doctors Arnold Cahn and Paul Hepp were trying naphthalene as a treatment for intestinal worms. They ordered more, but a pharmacist mistakenly sent acetanilide.

One of the patients was not only suffering from worms, but also from fever. After they took the acetanilide, the fever subsided, although the intestinal worms remained. The doctors examined the medication and discovered it wasn’t naphthalene, but rather acetanilide.

Having noticed the fever-reducing performance of the acetanilide, the doctors performed more trials with it. They discovered it to be effective as a pain reliever (analgesic) as well. A derivative, phenacetin, became established by Bayer for relief of pain and fever.

Phenacetin, even in moderate doses, was found to be toxic. In 1899, Karl Morner of Germany discovered that the body metabolizes acetanilide into acetaminophen. (The same effect occurs with phenacetin.) In the UK, Sterling realized that acetaminophen is effective against pain and fever, without the toxicity of phenacetin.

Acetaminophen went to market in the US and the UK in the 1950s. It is also known as paracetamol, and sold under many brand names worldwide.


Jack of Oracle Tutoring by Jack and Diane, Campbell River, BC.